There are currently 8,004 species of amphibian (AmphibiaWeb, 2019) ofwhich 88%, (7,064 species) are frogs and toads (anurans). These species exhibitan astonishing range of reproductive modes, of which only a small proportionlay eggs in water which hatch into aquatic larvae. In total, anurans exhibit 40different modes of reproduction which are based on where the eggs are laid, eggtype, and patterns of larval development. Examples of different reproductive modesinclude: depositing eggs in foam nests which float on water; laying eggs on theback of the female; laying eggs on the ground or in burrows; and depositing eggson leaves with tadpoles that hatch and fall into water below (Duellman &Trueb, 1986). Of the 40 modes, direct developing embryos are perhaps the mostunusual for amphibians. In these species, no water is required for developmentand instead the tadpoles develop within eggs which then hatch directly intofroglets. This type of reproduction has evolved multiple times independently inanurans and currently 1,400 species are recognised to develop in this way (Stuartet al., 2008). Our knowledge of thefull range of reproductive modes is still lacking as new patterns ofreproduction are still being discovered. For example, some recent discoveriesinclude novel nest building behaviour in the Kumbara night frog (Nyctibatrachus kumbara) from southernIndia (Gururaja et al., 2014) andunique foot-flagging behaviour has been observed in the Wayanad dancing frog (Micrixalus saxicola) a small torrentfrog from India (Preininger et al.,2013). In this article we discuss some further recent discoveries of novelreproductive behaviours in anurans.
The landscape design of national and state parks evolved from theeighteenth- and early nineteenth-century English landscape gardeningtradition of William Kent, Capability Brown, and Humphrey Repton. Thistradition came to America at the beginning of the nineteenth century andwas first manifested in the pleasure grounds of the wealthy along theHudson River in New York. Country estates such as Montgomery Place werecelebrated in the writings of Andrew Jackson Downing in the periodicalThe Horticulturalist. Downing's Treatise on the Theory andPractice of Landscape Gardening, first published in 1841, was thestandard American guide for landscape gardening in the nineteenthcentury and was revised by a number of authors as late as the 1920s.Downing, who had visited many English landscapes and was familiar withRepton's treatises, adapted the ideas and practices of the Englishdesigners to the American landscape and fostered a strong awareness andappreciation of a native landscape that was inherently sublime andpicturesque.
Downing's description of Montgomery Place illustrated the meaning ofscenery, vista, enframement, and sequence, and stressed the role thatrustic manmade features played in enhancing the individual's enjoymentand experience. Downing's romantic vision of the sylvanretreat—with its broad vistas, rustic seats, rock steps,thatch-roofed shelters, dense thickets of native wood, and expansiveterraces and porches from which distant views across open lawns could beenjoyed—captured the imagination of the designers of parks andsuburban homes alike in the nineteenth century. Downing's principleswould continue to attract followers well into the twentieth century,even after other styles gained popularity.
Downing's shelters would have corollaries in the lookouts, firetowers, picnic shelters, nature shrines, and observation towers of thenational and state parks. Although his designs using twisted unpeeledbranches would eventually be rejected in favor of sturdier structuresbuilt of large peeled logs or native stone, Downing established the linkbetween a structure's material and its setting and set the precedent forthe use of native materials in naturalistic forms as a technique forharmonizing manmade structures with a natural setting.
Rockwork was central to naturalistic landscape design. When itoccurred in nature, it added greatly to the scenic interest of awoodland, ravine, or cliff. Downing drew attention to the inherentbeauty of natural outcrops of rock, especially as they createdwaterfalls, inclines, and precipitous peaks affording scenic vistas. Hesaw rockwork of native stones as a compositional element that could beintroduced and manipulated, fashioned into naturalistic groupings, orenhanced by plantings.
Downing introduced Americans to the English gardener's aestheticpreference for rough stone surfaces covered with moss and lichens andworn by weather and time. This aesthetic would continue to appeal topark designers working in the rustic tradition and serve as the basis ofnaturalistic rock design both in landscape design and in theconstruction of walls, bridges, and buildings well into the twentiethcentury. The use of native stone, in boulder and split form, would beexpanded in later treatises on landscape architecture by Samuel Parsonsand Henry Hubbard. Native rock would have numerous applications in thedesign of national and state parks, from the embedding of rough bouldersas guardrails along roads or barriers in campgrounds to the massiveboulder foundations and chimneys of park buildings. It would appear inthe construction of park structures of all sizes, from water fountainsto refectories and administration buildings. Park designers during theNew Deal also used Downing's ideas to create naturalistic lakes,channelize and riprap streams, create waterfalls, rehabilitate springs,and construct buildings that emerged naturalistically from the ground.Downing's advice on planting was followed to beautify springs, controlerosion along streams, restore eroded or disturbed areas, plantfoundations and bridge abutments, and naturalize road and trailcuts.
The image of the picturesque, visible in what Downing called"spiry-topped" trees, engendered the most imaginative designpossibilities for natural areas. Although parks frequently had acombination of deciduous and evergreen trees, it was the evergreen, inthe form of stately pines, hemlocks, balsams, firs, redwoods, andsequoias, that inspired the greatest awe in park visitors. Downingdescribed the effect of spiry-topped trees:
In "Ornamental Trees and Shrubs in North America," first published in1835 in Hovey's Magazine of Horticulture, Downing praised manyAmerican trees, saying that no country on the globe produced a greatervariety of fine forest trees than North America. Downing was interestedin the beauty of each tree as an individual specimen or as part of agrouping. He had little concern for native habitat or groupings based onnatural ecological relationships. He treated North American species ashe did those introduced from abroad, as part of a full and rich palettefrom which the designer could fashion an estate, park, or country home.Of the deciduous trees of North America, he praised the oak for its"broad ample limbs and aged form" that gave "a very impressive air ofdignity" to a scene. He wrote of the "pendulous" branches of theAmerican elm, the "light foliage" of the birch, the "cheerful vernalappearance" of some maples, the "delicate" leaf of the locust, and the"heavy masses of verdure" produced by the beech. 
While he praised the Kentucky coffee (Gymnocladus canadensis)and the deciduous cypress (Taxodium rich), he considered "themost splendid, most fragrant, and most celebrated ornamental production"of American woodlands to be the Magnolia grandiflora of thesouthern states. Among native evergreens, he prized the white pine(Pinus strobus), the spruces of the Middle Atlantic states(Pinus alba, rubra, and fraseri), the balsam fir (Pinusbalsamea), and the arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis). Premieramong the evergreens was the hemlock (Abies canadensis), of whichhe wrote, "In its wild haunts, by the side of some steep mountain, or onthe dark wooded banks of some deep valley. it is most often a grand andpicturesque tree, when, as forest land, it becomes gloomy andmonotonous." 
Although Downing is most often acclaimed for his descriptions offoreign specimens and cultivars, Downing did not overlook the value ofmany fine American cultivars. At Montgomery Place he praised the ash,hemlock, and fir, as well as the flowering laurels that provided a richunderwood in "the Wilderness." Frank Waugh, one of Downing's strongesttwentieth-century followers, recognized in 1917 that Downing did much tostimulate an appreciation for America's native plants. In addition tothe native trees of the United States, Downing praised and encouragedthe planting of many native shrubs and ground covers, which he valuednot only for the inherent beauty of their foliage and flowers, but alsofor their ability to enhance the character of a natural scene.
Writing in The Horticulturalist on "Neglected American Plants"in 1851, Downing regretted the "apathy and indifference of Americans tothe beautiful sylvan and floral products of their own country."Americans, he claimed, imported every new and rare exotic from abroadbut remained unappreciative of native plants. He wrote, "How many richand beautiful shrubs, that might embellish our walks and add variety toour shrubberies, . . . are left to wave on the mountain crag, oroverhang the steep side of some forest valley; how many rare and curiousflowers. . . bloom unseen amid the depths of silent woods, or along themargin of wild water-courses." 
Downing believed that American woods and swamps were full of the mostexquisite plants, many of which could embellish "even the smallestgarden." He called the azaleas, laurels, rhododendrons, cypripediums,and magnolias the "loveliest flowers, shrubs, and trees of temperateclimates." He praised the English fashion of planting masses of Americanmountain laurel, azaleas, and rhododendrons. Downing drew attention totwo native broad-leaved evergreen shrubs abundant in the middlestates—the holly (Ilex opaca) and laurel (Kalmialatifolia)—and urged Americans to plant them in their pleasuregrounds: 2b1af7f3a8