Manusmriti, Olivelle states, was not a new document, it drew on other texts, and it reflects "a crystallization of an accumulated knowledge" in ancient India. The root of theoretical models within Manusmriti rely on at least two shastras that pre-date it: artha (statecraft and legal process), and dharma (an ancient Indian concept that includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and others discussed in various Dharmasutras older than Manusmriti). Its contents can be traced to Kalpasutras of the Vedic era, which led to the development of Smartasutras consisting of Grihyasutras and Dharmasutras. The foundational texts of Manusmriti include many of these sutras, all from an era preceding the common era. Most of these ancient texts are now lost, and only four have survived: the law codes of Apastamba, Gautama, Baudhayana and Vasishtha.
Chandragupta cut off Pabbata's head without hesitation and brought his teacher the amulet. By this action, Chandragupta showed himself the ideal candidate for kingship as envisioned by Chanakya: one who saw what needed to be done and was able to do it. Chanakya then focused his energies on training Chandragupta to be king and the Arthashastra can be considered the manual Chandragupta was tutored in. Once Chanakya considered Chandragupta properly trained, the two of them mounted an offensive against Dhanananda, deposed and killed him, and Chandragupta took the throne.
The social customs addressed adhered to Hindu traditions but the Arthashastra goes to some lengths in stipulating how marriages should operate. According to traditional Hindu custom, the parents of a girl would arrange a marriage with an acceptable boy of the same caste who showed promise of financial stability and a bright future. Kautilya, in Books II, III, and IV, states that a girl should be free to marry anyone she chooses as long as she respects her parents' property rights. If the parents approve of, or arrange, a marriage then the girl may take from her parents' home anything she has received from them; if not, then she may take nothing. Couples who marry for love, with their parents' approval, are to be considered the most fortunate and receive the maximum in property, rights, and gifts from their parents.
The first important issue to be aware of is that there are many Hindu traditions, and there is no single book that all Hindus would agree on as authoritative. In this essay, I will cite many texts from a spectrum of sources. The second point to note is that the many texts within Hindu traditions have played a limited role in the history of the religion. Although works like the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the many Puranas have been generally influential, philosophical works like the Upanishads are not well known by the masses. The texts on right behavior (dharma shastras) have been only selectively followed, and popular practice or custom has had as much weight as religious law. All these texts, along with Puranic and epic narratives, have been the carriers and transmitters of dharma and devotion (bhakti).
The philosophies of Shankara and Ramanuja are relevant to those who seek liberation, but not to those seeking moral rules to govern everyday behavior. Hindu communities and customs are established not on the sense of oneness or equality found in moksha, but on many differences and hierarchies based on gender, caste, age, economic class, and so on. With all their limitations and richness, therefore, we have had to deal with the texts, narratives, and traditions of dharma rather than the rule of moksha for actions leading to prosperity of the earth.
Lord Rama is one of the most significant and powerful deities of Hindu dharma and the lead character of the epic Ramayana. He kills the evil king Ravana to end his terrorizing rule and free his wife Sita, whom Ravana had kidnapped. 2b1af7f3a8